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Sabtu, 11 Agustus 2012

Makalah Bahasa Inggris


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. BACKGROUND
           The development of communication mobility and fast growing information needs of readiness of all parties to develop the ability to communicate more effectively. It is necessary that we should not only be used by other parties but to use information technology to our welfare. Use of communication media and information can not be separated from the use of language. Mastering the language of the first demands if we are to communicate and obtain information effectively. Language which is currently regarded as a language that can be used widely and effectively is English. This was due largely because the world population as a user and have an interest in using English. Especially if associated with globalization which is characterized by the rapid growth the internet then mastery of English is a must for us to access information and communicates effectively and efficiently. Aside from being a world language English is also used as a language in various fields of science, technology, economics, culture and others.

In the job market often we find a vacancy presupposing of English employ both passive and active. So that human resources is currently not complete if not provided by the mastery of English. This caused by several companies engaged in production of both goods and services often interact with foreign a interest that in fact is using English.

From the above we can pick a hint that the English should have introduced to students early on. Introduction to the language since the early conditioned such that there is interest in students to learn to explore their own experiences in using language as a medium of effective intermediary message.



B. GOAL WRITING
In preparing this paper, while the intent and purpose as follows:
1. Fulfilling the task of English subjects.
2. Can find out more closely about the importance of learning English in elementary school.
3. Adding insight in the field of learning English in elementary school.

C. BENEFITS OF WRITING
With the completion of this paper, there will be some benefits, among others:
1. Can be used as a source of reading for the readers,
2. Can expand knowledge

D. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Data is a vital tool in the formation of a paper then in the preparation of this paper we collect data by several methods, among others:

1. Methods Study Library
That is how the collection of data using additional reading materials that provide information to fill the still lacking to complete the paper.

2. Methods Literature
That is by reading books that help in making the supporting papers.










CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Learning English at school

English proficiency is one capability that is crucial in obtaining employment lately. This phenomenon is what underlies the emergence of a variety of language schools throughout Indonesia. Regardless of how exactly the quality of English courses that exist in Indonesia, implied a situation of concern is lack of good quality of English language teaching in schools.

            Problems Arising in English Language Teaching in Schools If we reflect more deeply, it is very unusual that students who have studied English for at least 6 years (since junior high school) after graduating from high school still can not speak English, even to introduce myself though. Called remarkable because if the student is taking a course at an institution bahasa general course in the same time, it is certain the students are very capable of talking in English, maybe even been able to understand English to the level of drama, poetry, etc. other. So, why did this happen?

            Based on a questionnaire which the author charging have ever made in 1996 for the coursework, there are some problems that, according to the students, holding them to master English. These issues are:

1. Rare teacher speak English in class. It was felt inhibited by the students because according to them, they are so not used to hearing other people speak English.

2. Lessons are too focused on grammar (and not in conversation), but students are rarely given guidance on how and what the function of the elements of grammar that they learned it.
Based on the results of questionnaires and test results to students, shows that the average student to master the patterns of English grammar (eg structure for simple present tense, etc.) but, students do not know when such structure should be used in and how their application daily life. This is very unusual because English, as well as Indonesian, will be more useful if it can be used and applied even though the grammar students not prevail against it. It does not mean that learning grammar is not important, but necessary once those theories associated with everyday life.

3. Vocabulary that is taught is not too useful in everyday conversations. Many students complain that the words given by the English teachers at school are too technical, for example about industrialization, reforestation, etc., while students still have difficulty to interpret the words that are widely used in movies, magazines, and internet sites in English. Even sometimes, the students are very memorized the English terms for the field of politics (such as the Reformation, Globalization, etc.) but can not say the things they used to wear everyday in English (eg, piggy banks, ditches , etc.). Some students even say that with such vocabulary is learned in school students can not possibly start a conversation with foreigners by using English. It may have a point, of course, we may not suddenly take a new person we know to discuss industrialization, for example.

As the conclusion, efforts to improve the quality of English language teaching in schools:

1. Always maintain our ability to converse in English for language fluency is maintained. This is necessary because it can motivate our students to be able to speak fluently. It may be difficult at all if we never met people who also speak English. Therefore, the authors have a proposal for English teachers in this sort of club (conversation club) for the event to meet and exchange ideas among English teachers in the same region. Thus, our expertise in using English will always remain intact.

2. Always emphasize the function and application of all elements of grammar that we explain to the students. Make sure that students really understand when they have to use the structure.

3. Provide additional vocabulary that will be useful for everyday conversation in students and introduce students to the teen magazines in English so that they become eager to read and gain a lot of extra vocabulary of the magazine. Thus, students will be confident if you have to associate with foreign teenagers who speak English.

4. Although we do not have the power to change the curriculum, at least make sure that the repetition of material that we give a deepening of what has been learned about the students and not just repeat but do not make students more able to apply them.

B.     Teaching English in ELEMENTARY Schools
            If we talk about teaching, people inevitably have to direct attention to four main things that
i)        the objectives to be achieved,
ii)      teaching and learning strategies,
iii)    the textbook, and
iv)    the professional competence to teach it berwe-treatment. (Nababa, 1993: 181).
            Be aware that the Institute for Labor Education Kepen-educated (LPTK) is responsible for education personnel preceptor, do not have a staff education program without having the authority to teach the English language in elementary school. Before the advent of Curriculumtional of education widely used nationally in 1994, LPTK directed to produce for high school teachers.
Let alone for Elementary Schools, for Vocational High School or vocational school and junior high school was not ready LPTK. This means that the implementation of English language teaching in elementary schools are not handled by teachers who are competence teach English to elementary school. This means that the teaching of English in Elementary Schools held a trial and error alone. And whatever was taught in elementary school as an institution of the earliest elementary education, have a major influence on teaching in the education level is higher. Strong basic weakness of successful placed in Elementary Schools will determine the development of next.
Alexei A. Leontiev in his book Psychology and the Language Learning Process (1989) talk about language learning in childhood that "Language learning in the early age of a child (6-12 years old) has a deceptive effect. His language development will from be greatly affected by his experience in learning the language. When he has undergone the right track of learning his language acquisition will from develop smoothly (Leontiev, 1989: 211).
Leontiev opinion it gives a warning that the teaching of languages, especially a foreign language, must, must be lived in accordance with the demands of child's learning. And to be able to do so, needed a teacher who is really competent to do so.
            Because English language teaching in elementary schools is still not a national curricular activities, then this book is not available ajarpun. Teachers should use teaching materials and useful suitability of emergency can not be ascertained.
            And by the unavailability of English teachers in elementary schools, the teaching-learning strategies correctly and according to the learning needs of students also can not be developed. Only one conclusion: the results of studying English in elementary school can not be assessed, because there can not be determined goal to be achieved. If Leontiev view to hold, it can be predicted that the teaching of English in junior high and high school are also unable to achieve expected goals. And worse, the error will be brought to learn in elementary school and in junior high and high school and beyond. Apart from the passion of students to learn English or not it would be difficult because they have developed in-man experience is not pleasant to learn this language in elementary school.
C. METHOD OF LEARNING ENGLISH ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

1. Approach to learning English in Elementary School
            Learning English at elementary education level is identical to the native language to teach a baby. Where in general our children in elementary schools are not familiar with English. So it will have an impact on patterns of English language teaching at elementary school level is more recognition. So endeavored wherever possible to achieve what he called "very impressive first impression 'that the next as a motivation for them to explore the repertoire of the English language at the level further. Thus the required specific tips in the form of application of the methods of innovative learning.
Initially learning English in their home country itself that is the United Kingdom and some countries users of English as national language such as Australia, New Zaeland, Canada and the United States teach the language separately. Since around the 1980's began to apply the whole language approach to language learning (Routman, 1991). Whole language approach to language teaching is not completely separated (Edelsky, 1991; Froese, 1990; Goodman, 1986; Weaver, 1992). Whole-language approach is based on the understanding kontruktifisme which states that children can construct their own cognitive strutur based on the experience acquired through an active role in learning intact (whole) and (integrated) management. (Robert, 1996).
Components of whole language are (1) Reading alloud, namely reading activities that teachers do their students. (2) journal writing is an activity that gives students write a journal devoted his feelings about learning activities thing that has to do with learning and the school in writing.
(3) Sustained silent reading, namely reading in the liver. (4) Guided reading, which is guided reading activities, (5) Guded Writing, namely writing guided learning activities, (6) Independent reading, namely reading activity free as the students enjoy doing readings. (7) Independent writing that is free writing activities so that students can think critically in analyzing the object or thing that he wrote.
            Meanwhile, according to David Nunan (1989) in Solchan TW, et al (2001:66) give about language learning using a communicative approach. Where is the communicative approach based on the theory of language is a system to express a meaning, which emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension of phase than the grammatical characteristics of language. By because it highlighted the need is the interaction and communication, not of knowledge about language.
The theory of learning that is suitable for this approach is the theory of second language acquisition naturally. This theory assumes that learning is more effective when taught in a natural language so that language learning process more effectively done through direct communication in the language being studied. Needs of students who major in language learning relates to the need to communicate the common purpose of learning the language is to develop students to communicate. In the English language learning students are faced with a communicative approach in real communication situations, such as information exchange, negotiation of meaning or other activities that are real.
            In the communicative approach the teacher's role is merely to facilitate the communication process, participants' task and text, analyze needs, counselors and managers of learning. While the student plays the giver and receiver, negotiators, and interactor so that students not only master the language forms, but the shape and meaning in relation to the context of usage. The material presented in the role as a supporter of efforts to increase proficiency in acts of real communication.
According to the communicative approach to the proper method applied is the communicative method itself with descriptions of techniques such as the be apart in Santosa, et al learned from Tarin extracted from Solchan, et al. (2001) follows, (1) listening lesson technique, (2) techniques of learning to speak, (3) techniques of learning to read, (4) techniques of learning to write. While the evaluation technique for discrete test approach is that separate tests are among the aspects of language, integrated tests are tests that integrate all aspects of language in an evaluation test that is mixed. The latter is a pragmatic test of students' skills in using language elements in a specific situational context as the starting measuring. Several types of tests are pragmatic, dictation, speech, paraphrasing, answering questions, and techniques hiatus.
            Another approach that is often recommended to be applied is the process skills approach. Where the process skills approach is identified as an approach that gives the widest opportunity for students to engage actively and creatively in the process of language acquisition. When compared with whole-language approach and the communicative approach to the process skills approach is animated by the two approaches. Likewise with the ever popular CBSA approach in the era of the 1980s was also a reflection of the two previous approaches. Up to the standard approach and the latter is the approach to teaching quantum, as will be discussed in the following section of the literature review chapter ins.


2. Collaborative Method
            Collaborative learning method is a way membelajarkan English that combines different approaches and methods in terkolaborasi and spontaneity appropriate atmosphere for learning. This means that there are times when a particular method does not appear in the atmosphere to the surface but other methods are emerging and dominant. Basic selection method using a classroom atmosphere, learning objectives to be achieved and student tastes. The reference teaches is a fun learning experience, structured and responsible manner. Outstanding teachers are their friends who act as guides activities. And if necessary, and possibly students who act as guides and our position is their playmate. They do not really realize they are learning English.
            Activities that are complex will provide opportunities for many students to show their talents in certain fields. Classes consist of many individuals who have a difference, where by Semiawan (1997) recommends to pay attention to these differences as a strength rather than a deficit. This is in accordance with the development of modern education is framed think "in the hope that there is no lack of talent of every child" Limitless expentacy of giftedness of EACH person "Clark (1983). Capital IQ could be a major foothold in building students' concept of structure, but Semiawan argues that some learners have the opportunity to grow as long as essential services, appropriate to the potential and talent as the views of multiple intelligence. View of multiple intelligence (multiple intelligences) by Howard Gardner will be easily applied through multimetode method (method varied). Contextually appropriate where applied in recognition of learning English in elementary school fourth grade.
            With a pattern like that all the objects around us is the media and other sources of learning, not just limited to books and board. Where according to the eight principles of Quantum Teaching (Caine & Caine, 1997): (1) Everything is talking, (2) all purpose, (3) experience before giving a name, (4) Acknowledge every effort, (5) Where feasible it is worthy of study celebrate, (6) involves a set of rules, policies and procedures by which teachers and students together to build consensus about the rules of the game in class, (7) school rules are clear, (8) Implementation of activities to get support. So the classroom is no longer the only place to learn. Field, halls, gardens and so on are places, resources and learning media. Barriers that most feel is the atmosphere sometimes beyond our control, so the dictionary method in the minds of teachers should be opened up to find other methods for controlled atmosphere again. In such an atmosphere there was no penalty called, that there is a reward for those who can finishing problems, while not only advised to complete the task, so jolly atmosphere will not be reduced.
            The picture above shows the freedom of students is so large is no longer referred to as a barrier, but as things to trigger for increased student motivation. The more happy students in the context of an atmosphere of learning English are not conscious then they already know some good vocabulary nouns, verbs, adjectives, question words, the mention of numbers and so forth. Even for students who are gifted in the language is to utter a simple sentence.
            In reality the implementation of a collaborative method with this interactive media will dijekaskan on the implementation of chapter programs and physical procedures in the appendix. Broadly speaking, the plan authors in applying the method is with a general scenario that has frequently formed the club to play for fourth graders called 'Chit Chat Club I ", for class V is called' Chit Chat Club II, and Chit Chat Club II. Chit Chat Club is a gathering to learn to say words. Where are distributive programs are integrated daily reciting of the skill of words, counting numbers, indicate the object, direction, nature of objects, comparing objects, chat conversation, sing, utter slogans, plays and storytelling. All activities are tailored to the theme of learning that students take and tastes without compromising the objectives to be achieved.
3. Interactive Media
            Media in English language learning activities become very important because without the media how the students can interpret an object with a specific term in English. Certain object is a fact that further agreed symbolically called the variety of sounds strung together into words. Furthermore, each view these objects students will remember the premises of certain words in English.
Interactive media object is an object that can be brain tweaking by students on the basis of linguistic elements. The media will be described with words, written into a series of sentences that can be spoken and heard by others. Of an object can be made interactive atmosphere that involves all five senses students. Emotionally engage students fully into the learning process. Emotional involvement is crucial because research shows that learning without emotional involvement would reduce the brain's activity in the 'glue' lesson in memory.
            Interactive media is very relevant to the eight principles of Quantum Teaching (Caine & Caine, 1997): (1) Everything is talking, (2) all purpose, (3) experience before giving a name, (4) Acknowledge every effort, (5) If feasible studied it is worthy of celebration, (6) involves a set of rules, policies and procedures by which teachers and students together to build consensus about the rules of the game in class, (7) school rules are clear, (8) Implementation of activities to get support.
            Source of interactive media in the context of learning English is very easy to obtain and does not require an expensive cost. Media students' learning environment can be used as an interactive media because in elementary school English is still the introduction.
            Interactive media can be a teaching aid that can be varied in accordance with the functions and senses sensitivity level students. For where is known that there are ways that students learn quickly learn to use visual course, there are quick to see, smell, touch, or by providing four engaged Stimulation - stimulation of the process from outside the accepted students as part of the language learning process requires sensing work effectiveness such as vision, hearing and touch.    Effectiveness and efficiency of work of the senses is very helpful through the role and use of various demonstrations and props. Based on these variations Winataputra (1997), argues, learning aids can be grouped as follows: (1) props that can be seen. Props this is the most sensitive to increased attention and interest children in learning. This group included such images - pictures, graphs, charts, bulletin boards, slides, engravings, maps, films, (2) teaching aids that can be heard. In general these tools to dominate the class. Therefore, teachers must be able to attract the attention of students, teachers able to vary the sound itself, from the high, low, sad, excited, eager, hard and soft. Besides using his own voice can also be varied with the recording tools such as animal sounds, speech, figure - a leading figure, poetry, drama and natural sound, (3) visual aids that can be touched and manipulated. Belonging to these groups such as seeds - seeds, models, animals, plants, equipment - laboratory equipment. The opportunity to manipulate a learning tool to provide a very significant meaning for the understanding of the subject matter in depth.
            All of these props can be selected or varied in accordance with the function and purpose of learning provided that the user pay attention to the situation and the ability of teachers to the learning becomes more effective and efficient. Learning that interactive media will create a conducive learning atmosphere for the growth of new cognitive structures that adopt a variety of new information which was adapted.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. CONCLUSION

            Based on the information we collect about the importance of learning English in elementary schools, it can be concluded that:

            English education is needed at the elementary school level, because the era of globalization Demand to "international right" all the elements.
because that has become the international language of English, the obligation of all parties to provide learning English early on, but that does not mean leaving the national language.


B. SUGGESTIONS

            With thanksgiving presence of God Almighty, who has created various types of creatures that seemed glory. So with this experience hopefully can add to science, knowledge, experience unforgettable and new insights, and makes the information for the readers of this paper, hopefully useful.
            This paper is far from perfect, here and there still many flaws, criticisms and constructive suggestions from the readers generally, and Mrs Our lecturers always expect.








REFERENCES




http://kursusinggris.wordpress.com/2006/11/28/bahasa-inggris-harus-dikuasai-secara-acktif/

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